His increase of tax in the fertile Doab region was not at all in-correct. Muhammad bin Tughlaq is known in history for his hare-brained schemes. by Zoya Ansari 18/10/2020. In 1327 A.D. he captured This also came at a time when the Doab was at the verge of a famine. Introduction of token currency was another bold experiment of the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Many people, including religious divines who had gone to Daulatabad, settled down there. Muhammad Kunhi by birth, he was also called ‘Muhammad the Bloody’. It was a great loss to the Sultan both in men and money. After the death of his father, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq took the throne and ruled over a vast portion of the northern India along with the Deccan from 1324 to 1351 AD. He was a very knowledgeable person with deep knowledge in philosophy, logic, mathematics and medicine. So in this context, it is very difficult to make an important and unprejudiced assessment of the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Related posts: Brief notes on some of … The Tughlaqs provided three important rulers: Ghiyath-ud-din Tughlaq, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and Firuz Shah Tughlaq. The Tughlaqs provided three important rulers: Ghiyath-ud-din Tughlaq, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq and Firuz Shah Tughlaq. Muhammad also increased the land tax to increase the revenue in Doab but it led to major discontent among the subjects. He promised to exchange silver coins for bronze coins. But the forged coins which were detected were not exchanged. After the demise of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, his eldest son Fakhruddin Muhammad Juana Khan alias Muhammad bin Tughlaq, mounted the throne at Tughlaqabad. No advisor disagreed. Neither the Sultan nor his officers did realize the matter. But Devagiri would be a safe place and almost free from Mongol raids. He succeeded his father Ghiyas- ud- din- Tughlaq in 1325, who was the founder of the Tughlaq … Muhammad bin Tughlaq is known in history … Many of them went to jungles and joined the Gang of robbers. Whatever may be the fact Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ordered for the transfer of capital in 1327 A.D. At first Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq wanted to make an assessment of the total income and expenditure of the country. 7. The Tughlaq dynasty was a Turko-Indian dynasty, which ruled Delhi during the Sultanate period. But he failed to keep an effective control over its minting. Privacy Policy3. Muhammad bin Tughlaq is known by the names of crazy, eccentric, blood-pimping etc. But during the time Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq a huge quantity of coins was required for various transactions and there was a dearth of gold and silver coins in the country. Since this event took place during the summer season and the journey was rigorous one, many people died on the way. Nobody was allowed to stay at Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was well known for his wisdom and character. People had a lot of expectations from him and he on the other hand, had the desire for more valuable contribution for his countrymen than his predecessors. Therefore, another increase in the land revenue tax upto ten percent more in the Doab by the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, definitely created serious peasant discontentment. He was also a good calligraphist. During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Delhi Sultanate’s empire was the most elaborate. They were supplied with all sorts of agricultural instruments and seeds. He was a profound scholar of Persian, a penetrating critic, a litterateur of repute. He was popular for his numerous policies and reforms that earned him the tag of ‘wise fool’ among all the other Indian rulers. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was born in 1300 in Multan, Pakistan. This was done in order to control the Deccan region more effectively. However, on the way, the mission was intercepted and looted by dacoits and Ibn Battuta just about managed to escape and save his life. After ascending the throne, he assumed the name of Muhammad Tughlaq. Soon ice-cold winds and rains devastated the whole army in Tibet, followed by the … Tughlaq tried to enter Tibet through the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand but his army faced a similar defeat due to the unfamiliar, rugged terrain. He was the son of Turk Ghiyas-ud-din, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty that replaced Khilji rule in Delhi, and succeeded his father upon his death. He remained at Tughluqabad for forty days and … Once upon a time. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq Biography Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most remarkable and interesting ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty. Muhammad took a very modern step in introducing bronze coins as the token currency. In this way a huge amount of new coins were exchanged for silver. Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351) He was a very attractive character in the history of medieval India owing to his ambitious schemes and novel experiments. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was well known for his wisdom and character. The Sultan had set up rest houses on the way to help the travellers. After some initial success, the Delhi army perished in the mountainous region of Himalayas due to severe rain fall. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq 1325-1351. Token currency was the system of currency introduced by Muhammad bin Tughlaq where brass and copper coins were to have the same value as silver and … He recruited one lakh soldiers for this purpose and paid them one year’s salary in advance. He was well versed in Arabic and Persian language and literature. In order to bring an improvement in agriculture, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq decided to undertake a number of measures and he, therefore established a department of agriculture called Diwan-i-kohi. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the most controversial of all the sultans ever to rule India. The target amount of production could not be achieved. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq had to face financial crisis due to famine-like situation and frequent revolts in the country and he found it difficult to maintain the supply of gold and silver coins on a large scale. This book talks about Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Mughals were at the peak of their power under the reign of Aurangzeb, similarly the sultanate was at the peak of its power under Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Further he had squeezed the treasury by spending a lot of money in his various experiments including the transfer of the capital. Wolsley Haig, ed., The Cambridge History of India (Delhi, 1958), and R. C. Majumdar, ed.,The History and Culture of the Indian People, vol. In 1337 Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq sent a huge army to invade Karajal. All through his rule, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq introduced many reforms and measures but all flopped. Muhammad bin Tughluq was the Turkic Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. To handle the situation, he He was a very talented person but due to impatience and lack of judgement he did not turned into a good emperor. He was a profound scholar of Persian, a penetrating critic, a litterateur of repute. However the people were asked to shift. According to Ibn Batuta “A search was made and a blind man and a cripple man were found. Mughals were at the peak of their power under the reign of Aurangzeb, similarly the sultanate was at the peak of its power Muhammad bin Tughluq also known as Jauna Khan was a sultan of delhi. The charge against Muhammad-bin-Tughluq was that he was a mixture of opposites. Jauna Khan ascended the throne in 1325 AD with the title of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. The army suffered terribly and we are told by Barani that out 10, 000 army only 10 horse-men could return to Delhi to tell the story of the disaster. It is said that it was a conspiracy on the part of Muhammad-bin Tughlaq who was impatient for power. Three days after the death of his father either in February or March 1325 A.D., prince Jauna Khan alias Ulugh Khan ascended the throne of Delhi and was called Muhammad Bin Tughluq. He ruled from 1324 to 1351 AD. Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s character was a mixture of opposites and extremes. No doubt the Doab region between the Ganga and Yamuna was highly fertile and production was more than any other part of the country, but hike in the tax came at a wrong time and assessment of revenue was not based on the factual report. Ibn Battutah, the North African Arab traveler, came India during Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq’s period and he had written the detailed description of the Muhammad’s kingdom. However Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq has been criticized for this transfer of capital. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most interesting personalities of Medieval Indian history. Simply stating for a layman: Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was the Aurangzeb of Delhi Sultanate. in Indian history. The distance from Delhi to Daulatabad (Devagiri) was nearly 1500 km. As there was shortage of gold and silver coins to serve as a medium of exchange due to the increase in the transactions, the sultan was very right to go for the introduction of a Copper Currency which had the same value as the Silver Coin. In person Feruz was a religious disposition. When he was inspecting an elephant parade standing on a pavilion at Tughluqabad, the Pavilion collapsed and the Sultan along with his second son Muhammad Khan crushed under it and died. A large number of officers and guards were appointed to look after the project. These coins Barani says, were heaped up outside the fort and remained lying there for many years.- These above experiments not only brought wastage of money but also affected the prestige of the Sultan. For, all his projects like the transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, introduction of token currency, experiment in Doab and expedition to Kangra were all unsuccessful. Coin of Muhammad bin Tughluq: Muhammad bin Tughluq was the son of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, the founder of Tughlaq dynasty. Barani also refers to some conflicting habits of the Sultan. Peasants were paying the land revenue tax almost the half of the produce since the time of Ala-ud-din Khilzi. 2. The He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.He was born in New Delhi. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq appointed Ibn Battuta as Qazi (judge of Delhi) and he worked for 8 years. [citation needed] His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. He was a great general but he lacked common sense and practical judgemnet. When the capital That is why right from the beginning of his rule; he decided to take some bold reformative measures for the improvement as well as safeguard of the country. Peasants unwilling and unable to pay tax, fled away from the villages and Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq took harsh measures to capture and punish them. He tried to run his government according to Islamic Law. He was generous and … He was highly educated and was well versed in Arabic and Persian language. Muhammed Bin Tughluq is one of the most interesting rulers in the history of India. These hilly tracts usually served as a place of refuge for the rebels against the government of Delhi. Plan to conquer Khurasan and Iraq. He was a lover of music and fine arts. During his reign, Tughluq imposed heavy tax in the land between the Ganga and the Yamuna rivers. He was very good in maths, astronomy. It was not always possible to operate army from Delhi for the occupation of Southern states. He was well versed in logic, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and physical sciences also had the knowledge of medicine and dialectics. Nobody wanted to incur the Sultan’s wrath and be trampled under an elephant’s feet. We are fortunate in having a lot of authentic and interesting material about his reign. It was definitely a praise-worthy step of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Three days after the death of his father either in February or March 1325 A.D., prince Jauna Khan alias Ulugh Khan ascended the throne of Delhi and was called Muhammad Bin Tughluq. He changed his mind and again in 1335 A.D. he ordered the retransfer of the Capital to Delhi and asked everybody to go back to Delhi. But professor Habibullah and others have given almost the different views. a. Tomara Rajputs b. Angpal c. Patwari d. None of these . Instead of shifting the en masse population, he could have shifted only the official seats and officers. Neither his selection of the place Devagiri as a site of capital nor his act of shifting the entire population of Delhi was welcomed by any historian. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq next to Alluddin Khilzi was the greatest sultan of Delhi who is best remembered for his bold experiments and innovative thought in the field of administration as well as in agriculture. He opened a separate office where a large number of clerks and officers were appointed to do the compilation work. He ruled for twenty … Again in case of his transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, he displayed his lack of Wit. Ziauddin Barani - He wrote a book Tarikh-e-Firoz Shahi. … Reign of the dynasty started in 1321 when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne of Delhi under the title of Ghiyath-ud-din Tughlaq. Though the attempt to make Devagiri a capital failed, it had a number long-range benefit. Karajal expedition was another mis-judged step of Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq. At first a large area of land say sixty square miles in area was taken up in the project. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq just after the death of his father, declared himself as the Sultan in Tughlaqabad and after staying 40 days there, he proceeded to Delhi where he was greeted by the people as well as the Nobles. 5. The department’s main work was to find out uncultivated lands and make all sorts of arrangements for the cultivation of horse lands. Further the people of the south were under the feeling of an alien rule. In spite of this he was misunderstood by his subjects. The escapade went down in history as yet another of Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s foolhardy decisions. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the most controversial of all the sultans ever to rule India. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was the Sultan of Delhi in the early 14th century, and had ruled over a large empire in India. He was also mild before the Mongols. He extended his territories to the extent which no other Sultan of Delhi had even attempted. Historians like Elphinstone, Edward Thomass, Havell and V.A. It helped in bringing north and south closer together by improving communications. His enterprises and novel experiments ended in miserable failures because they were all far ahead of their time. The Estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq: While making an estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s character and achievements, historians have strongly differed and have expressed diametrically opposite views. He was very kind and generous to the poor and pandits and was very unkind and cruel. ADVERTISEMENTS: 3. In the sultans of Delhi Sultanate, Muhammad bin Tughluq was the ruler with the most singular personality. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was born in 1300 in Multan, Pakistan. He was highly ambitious and was a man of high moral character. Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s predecessors depended on gold and silver coins as medium of exchange. After the demise of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, his eldest son Fakhruddin Muhammad Juana Khan alias Muhammad bin Tughlaq, mounted the throne at Tughlaqabad. His Five Disastrous Projects . Even contemporary historians like Barani and Ibn Batuta have expressed opposite views about the character and achievements of the Sultan. Muhammad Kunhi by birth, he was also called ‘Muhammad the Bloody’. The cripple man has put to death while the blind man was tied with the tail of horse and was dragged to Daulatabad where only his one leg reached.”. He wrote a book Kitab-ul-Rehla in Arabic language. He also did it in order to consolidate the newly conquered states of south. One fine morning, the Sultan decided that the Sultanate capital should be shifted from Delhi to Daultabad! He lost both men and money in both the expeditions of Khurassan and Karajal. History and Civics for Class 7 ICSE Solutions all questions are solved and explained by expert teachers as per ICSE board guidelines. He ruled for about 26 years till his death on 20 March 1351. Finally he decided to withdraw the token currency. Lastly, it was a novel experiment, therefore, required more time and attention on the part of the Sultan which he could not give. Muhammad bin Tughlaq is known by the names of crazy, eccentric, blood-pimping etc. He was one of the most controversial rulers in India History. [56] [82] The Tughlaq's had attempted to manage their expanded empire by appointing family members and Muslim aristocracy as na'ib (نائب) of Iqta' … Content Guidelines 2. Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1361A.D.) There was a Sultan in Delhi. He ruled from 1324 to 1351 AD. Barani says, the sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was a veritable wonder of creation whose abilities would have taken by surprise even Aristotle and Asaf. For the uninitiated, Delhi Sultanate preceded the Mughal Empire. But, a large portion of these failed because of his fretfulness and absence of judgment. Sir Woolreley Haig has accepted the version of Ibn Batuta, Isami also says that the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq resolved to break-up the power of the citizens of Delhi and therefore, decided to transfer the capital. This time, by Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq, who too met with failure. Image Source: upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/23/Muhammad_Tughlak_orders_his_brass_coins_to_pass_for_silver,_A.D._1330.jpg. Most of the plans of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq failed because these were ill-timed, ill-planned and badly executed. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was interested in Persian poetry, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy and was also noted a philosopher. He ruled for twenty-six years (1325-1351). But he was misunderstood by the people. Though the scheme failed disastrously during his reign, yet it had a long term impact. The first rebellion took place in 1326 and by 1351when the Sultan died in pursuit of a rebel he had to deal with as many as 34 rebellions, 27 of them in the south alone. According to Standly Lane-poole, “Daulatabad was a monument of misdirected energy.”. The verses of this inscription speak of Muhammad bin Tughluq as “the mighty Saka Lord” and throw light on the favorable conditions in which the Hindu families of Delhi lived. Muhammad- bin-Tughlaq introduced bronze coins in place of silver and gold but there remained certain defects which made him a big failure in this experiment. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the second ruler of Tughlaq dynasty who ruled from 1324–1351.He shifted the capital from Delhi to Devagiri, because it was difficult for him to control South India from there. History. It was due to the failure in different matters he has been called a mad Sultan. He spent nearly three lakhs of rupees for this mission. Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s character was a mixture of opposites and extremes. Muhammad bin Tughlaq: the enigmatic ruler. Transfer of the capital from Delhi to Devagari (Daultabad) has the most controversial step of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. In Indian history, he is referred … The new coins also began to be greatly devalued in the markets. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's Reforms. Transfer of the capital . Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, one of the most interesting personalities of medieval India, was the son of Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, who founded the Tughlug Dynasty in India. He was in the court of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq for 17 years. He did a great mistake by dropping this project just after one failure. The government treasury was filled with bronze or copper coins. Online Test of Chapter – 3 The Delhi Sultans Test 2 | History Class 7th Social Science (S.St) Q. The object of his taxation policy in the Doab was to increase the military resources. He is famous for many reasons in Indian history. As regards to his foreign expeditions, he was seen as a great failure. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, sought to send an equally grand mission with valuable gifts to China and appointed Battuta as the Ambassador to China. Of course this version of Iban Batuta has been debatable. The below mentioned article provides a biography of Muhammad Bin Tughluq. Secondly as Devagiri was situated at a central place so the administration of the north and the south could be possible. Muḥammad ibn Tughluq, (born c. 1290, Delhi, India—died March 20, 1351, Sonda, Sindh [now in Pakistan]), second sultan of the Tughluq dynasty (reigned 1325–51), who briefly extended the rule of the Delhi sultanate of northern India over most of the subcontinent. He also did not make any elaborate effort to check it except banning it. In spite of this, the scheme failed miserably. Ibn Battuta was sent to China as an ambassador. He was the most cruel, cold-blooded and crazy sultan yet. The increase of taxation in the Doab Region was an ill measured step on the part of the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. And again during the time of his father Sultan Giyasuddin Tughlaq he led the imperial forces to Telengana and Warrangal. 1. Mohammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 AD) - The wisest fool king Mohammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 AD): He succeeded his father Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq and ascended the throne of Tughlaq Dynasty in 1325 AD. Further Reading on Muhammad bin Tughluq. Muhammad Tughlaq effectively repulsed the Mongol army that had marched up to Meerut near Delhi. Many people ran away to the forests to avoid … His Khurasan project was the first of them. For, all his projects like the transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, introduction of token currency, experiment in Doab and expedition to Kangra were all unsuccessful. The unstable political condition of Central Asia inspired the Sultan to undertake this project. The government took no steps to prevent this. Had he been able to do so, he could have been successful. 4. He was a native of Barani in the Doab. The study of Islamic Law was encouraged during his rule and many books on the subject were compiled. See Article History. 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