This species is common in many areas of India (Afzal and Ghani 1953 [6]). 0000007535 00000 n Its outbreaks have always been a difficult problem for the growers of cotton in the Punjab, and it has often resulted in the complete failure of this crop (Lal, 1941). Suborder: Sternorrhyncha; Superfamily: Coccoidea, Rice mealybug, Brevennia rehi (Lindinger). 0000005548 00000 n Any parasites hatching from the material were preserved in 70% alcohol. A. Kalaisekar, ... J.V. Name Authority; Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) Amrasca biguttula punctata (Melichar) Amrasca devastans (Distant) Chlorita biguttula: Ishida: Empoasca biguttula This plant hopper feeds on sorghum in Asia and the Middle East (Asche and Wilson, 1990). Uk State Pension Taxable In Australia Ato, The following species of this genus suck the sap from roots underground: Stibaropus callidus (Schiodte), 1848, and Stibaropus molginus (Schiodte), 1848. Syn. 0000003480 00000 n Indian Journal of Entomology 27, 104-106. Name Authority; Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) Amrasca biguttula punctata (Melichar) Amrasca devastans (Distant) Chlorita biguttula: Ishida: Empoasca biguttula In many grape-growing regions of North America, the western and eastern grape leafhoppers (Erythroneura elegantula and E. comes, respectively) are the most important species; in southern California, the variegated leafhopper (E. variabilis) and the nonindigenous glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata) are the major species whereas the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae) is particularly significant in the southeastern United States. The pronotum has trapeziform, punctulate, posterior angles slightly obtusely acute; anterior angles are obtuse, anteriorly with a distinct collar, apices robustly callose; hemelytra is flavescent, punctulate, sparingly fulvous-pubescent; clavus and sutual portion of the corium are roseate; legs are concolorous, tibiae are armed externally with 10 or 11 black spinules; the apices of the tarsi are fuscous. Such cultivars not only endure leafhopper infestation for a longer period, but may also suffer from the migration of leafhoppers from early-maturing varieties. One of the problems associated with this, or any other control measure against the glassy-winded sharpshooter, is that its major significance derives from its being a vector for Xylella fastidiosa, the agent of Pierce’s disease. There are some closely similar species and subspecies recognized in the United States, viz., B. leucopterus leucopterus (Say), B. leucopterus hirtus Montandon, Blissus insularis Barber, and Blissus occiduus Barber. Injections of bassiacridin resulted in a mortality rate up to 50%, and melanization occurred in the tracheae, air sacs and fat bodies of the insects (Quesada-Moraga and Vey, 2004). The nymphal period lasts for 7–21 days, and the nymphs are whitish to pale green in color. STUDIES ON COTTON JASSID (EMPOASCA DEVASTANS DISTANT) IN THE PUNJAB* vii. Fairyfly (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae) egg parasitoids of the tea green leafhopper Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae), an economically important pest in Asia of the tea plant, Camelliasinensis, were identified from specimens reared in Japan.Using a combination of genetic and morphological evidence, Anagrus (Anagrus) rugmanjonesi Triapitsyn & Adachi-Hagimori, … If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, 0000239682 00000 n Pygofer in lateral aspect about as long as wide, ventral margin with distinct long spine extending posterodorsad beyond dorsal margin of pygofer; aedeagus in lateral aspect with long basal process; aedeagal shaft curved, short, attenuated apically; gonopore apical; style in dorsal aspect simple, lateral margin of apices serrate; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin convergent apically. Indian castor collections exhibited varying reaction against Spodoptera and semilooper when screened over years under natural infestation in hot-spot areas in multilocation trials of All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Castor. You can also explore TreatmentBank top down. Syn. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The cotton jassid Empoasca devastans Distant has been reported as a major pest from all the cotton growing areas of the Indian Union. Paddy earhead bug, Leptocorisa acuta (Thunberg, 1783). I. Varietal susceptibility and development of the pest on different varieties of cotton.— Indian J. agric. An Amrasca biguttula in nahilalakip ha genus nga Amrasca, ngan familia nga Cicadellidae. Most likely Amrasca biguttula biguttula; previously, Amrasca devastans, and Empoasca devastans.. Distribution. C. mbila (Naudé, 1924) China, 1928: 61–63. Fungal spores of B. bassiana grown on cooked rice have been used to suppress the population of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, in Colombia, and the pathogenic effect of this fungus against H. hampei was found to be over 92.5% (Posada-Flórez, 2008). This plant hopper feeds on millets in Asia. Purple top in potato, which is caused by aster yellows mycoplasma- like organisms, is also transmitted by leafhoppers (Misra 1995). The modulation of cellular immune responses in hosts is the key function of destruxins during fungal infections (Kershaw et al., 1999). Unlike E. fabae, these three economically important species do not cause hopperburn damage in potato, but rather cause a physiological condition that results in a speckled or white stippled appearance on the leaves (DeLong 1931). Recently, purple top disease associated with “Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense” was reported on potatoes in New Zealand (Liefting et al. It is more important to control leafhoppers under drought conditions, when potato is more susceptible to leafhopper injury. Known leafhoppers vectoring the potato witches’-broom phytoplasmas include Scleroracus flavopictus, S. dasidus, and S. balli (Raine 1967, Slack 2001); however, in many parts of the world the vectors of this disease are still unknown. Distribution. 2009a); however, the insect transmitting this phytoplasma to potato in this region has not yet been determined. Growth of one or more hyphomycetes on escaped sap and insect honeydew can produce a sooty appearance on plant surfaces. Both nymphs and adults suck cell sap, usually from the ventral surfaces of leaves. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128098073000123, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035276000159, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123868954000041, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065280617300012, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012381468500004X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123868954000089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128042434000021, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0926669011002081, Preharvest Approaches to Control Insect Infestation in Fruit, Preharvest Modulation of Postharvest Fruit and Vegetable Quality, Microbial Control of Insect Pests of Tea and Coffee, Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests, Cadena-Hinojosa 1996, 1999, Leyva-López 2002, Brčák 1979, Salazar and Javasinghe 2001, Slack 2001, Vilcinskas et al., 1997; Wang et al., 2012, Sharma and Lopez, 1990; Kruger et al., 2007, Castor genetic resources: A primary gene pool for exploitation, Jayaraj, 1968; Srinivas Rao et al., 2000; Vijaya Lakshmi et al., 2005, Lakshminarayana, 2003; Lakshminarayana and Anjani, 2009, Lakshminarayana, 2003; Anjani and Jain, 2004, Lakshminarayana, 2003; Lakshminarayana and Anjani, 2010, Prasad and Anjani, 2000; Anjani et al., 2010b. Leafhoppers typically lay their eggs on the underside of leaves. Females lay transparent to pale yellow eggs, which are inserted into the veins and petioles of leaves. E. devastans is less effective vector. Original combination: Delphax lugens StÃ¥l, 1854: 246. Leftover Beef And Guinness Pie, Chemical control of leafhoppers has shifted from synthetic pesticides, such as organophosphates, to ‘softer,’ nicotine-based compounds (e.g., imidacloprid). Brachypterous wings show a distal thick dark patch and a small anal spot. Approximately, 60% of insect diseases are caused by pathogenic fungi (Faria and Wraight, 2007). P. maidis-vectored maize mosaic virus (MMV) wiped out the maize crop of the Maya civilization in Central America and thus was considered to be one of the main reasons for the classic Maya collapse (Brewbaker, 1979; Hannikainen, 2011). Family: Pseudococcidae, K. Anjani, in Industrial Crops and Products, 2012. Studies on the cotton Jassid (Empoasca devastans Distant) in the Punjab. A Randomized Complete Block Design with six treatments and three replications was used for insecticide experiment; and five treatments with three replications for variety trial. H��TMo�@��W�H�v�m�G, V2�D�I�� ��\��}��?��O_>�O�_��wV>f�2�.��x�_�/h������ 8r�ȹ�)�k��mRF儑j.�=��=�LL�����M�nJ��\�����������X&�@ ���Շ�7!�\��p�(�u���=� h���r0�O ���k��c ����ҟ�v8�ڡG:)�+0��[email protected]�QcB�V��)ch���X���d����=�htp�µ-��Xt�=6����RI2��: �����r9���BPݯA��M�I�ɥƩ|�T*L�쌁sع���vH�I#�sn��3O#��8�:���\~��|u���Et[��� �^+�R�A\&���"nt�Z. Peppermint Candy Review, 2002, Santos-Cervantes et al. Apart from recording three species Velu caricae Ghauri, Empoasca punjabensis Pruthi, and Amrasca devastans (Distant), seventeen new species have been described in the present account. Chinch (= pest, in Spanish) bugs were reported to be damaging wheat crops as early as 1783 in North Carolina, United States, and during those periods, the bug was a major threat to the agrarian economy, with populations reaching outbreak levels (Leonard, 1966). Crops Affected by Empoasca papayae Oman; Rice: Citrus: Carrot: Barley: Apple: Tomato: Maize (Corn) Pear: Potato: Sugarcane: Elm: Strawberry: Wheat: Palms: Rubus: Sorghum: Grapevine: Papaya: Other (grasses/cereals) Ornamentals: Peach Whitefly, Trialeurodes ricini (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is another serious sucking pest in castor. Therefore, toxins produced by fungi may influence host humoral immunity by regulating the transcription of immunity-related genes. The distribution extends from the Mediterranean to Turkestan, with a wide range in tropical Africa and the Indian subcontinent (Odhiambo, 1958; Carapezza, 1998). 2010). This mirid bug is widely distributed throughout Sudan, Egypt, and Congo (Goodman, 1953) and India (Sharma and Lopez, 1990). Effective oil formulations containing Metarhizium anisopliae spores have been shown to kill 70%–90% of treated locusts within 14–20 days in Africa, Australia and Brazil (Lomer et al., 2001). Original combination: Cimex viridula Linnaeus, 1758. Length of male 4.50—5.00 mm., female 5.00 mm. Mode of spread and survival The disease is transmitted by leaf hoppers, Hishimonas phycitis and Empoasca devastans and grafting. Anisoscelis albicinctus Say, 1832; Anisoscelis confusa Dallas, 1852; Anisoscelis fraterna Westwood, 1842. 911 – 926. Stila Perfecting Concealer Shade D, Dimethoate and methyl demeton applied at the appearance of the pest, and phorate applied at planting, are approved for the control of leafhoppers in India (Pandey 2002). Delphax psylloides Lethierry, 1897: 105–106; Dicranotropis maidis (Ashmead, 1890); van Duzee 1897: 225–261; Liburnia psylloides (Lethierry, 1890); Kirkaldy 1904: 175–179; Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead, 1890); Kirkaldy 1907: 186. (undetermined) _. An exotic accession EC 103745 was reported to be resistant to whitefly (Ramanathan, 2004). Amrasca devastans Chlorita biguttula Shiraki, 1913 Chlorita bigutulla Husain & Lal, 1940 Chlorita bimaculata Matsumura, 1917 Empoasca biguttula Empoasca bipunctata Schumacher, 1915 Empoasca devastans Distant, 1918 Empoasca devastans Lefroy, 1906 Empoasca devastens Cherian & Kylasam, 1938 Empoasca nigropunctata Merino, 1936 The hemelytra are transparent and are twice as long as the abdomen, having thin, distinct veins (Butani and Jotwani 1984). The former two are dark purple colour morphotypes and the later two are papaya leaf type morphotypes. Eggs hatch in 4–9 days, nymphal development takes 19–21 days, and adult longevity is 7–15 days (Butani and Jotwani 1984). Members of the genus Gonatocerus (Pilkington et al., 2005) are the principal parasitoid wasps feeding on eggs of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata). Leaves gathered on the fields of the Institute were dissected in search of the jassid eggs. 0000002042 00000 n, Studies on the cotton Jassid (Empoasca devastans Distant) in the Punjab. Damage results from disruption of phloem (Trivedi and Rajagopal 1999). Narrow. Original species combination: Selenocephalus cincticeps Uhler, 1896. Symbiotic control is also under investigation to control Scaphoideus titanus, the major carrier of the phytoplasma causing flavescence dorée (Marzorati et al., 2006). Green or Indian cotton jassid (or leafhopper). There are many other species of Leptoglossus recorded on millets (Fig. Does Roar Mean I Love You, Hussain MA; Lal KB, 1940. Um was handelt es sich ? Cimex militaris Fabricius, 1775: 717; Spilostethus pandurus Oshamin, 1912, 1: 27; Spilostethus pandurus militaris (Fabricius) Mukhopadhyay, 1988, 107: 15. Plant hopper, Proutista moesta (Westwood, 1896). 2.16). They occur most frequently on basal leaves. 0000008191 00000 n An Amrasca biguttula in nahilalakip ha genus nga Amrasca, ngan familia nga Cicadellidae. Journal of the Agricultural Science Society of North-East India, 13(1):22-26. Original combination: Phytocoris pallidus Rambur, 1839. Apart from India, the bug has been reported from Kenya and Rwanda (Seshu Reddy and Omolo, 1985). Colour: General color yellow. What Is Interior Defense In Basketball, Insecticides are not effective to control leafminer. High concentration of total phenols was observed in resistant genotypes (Prasad and Anjani, 2000; Anjani et al., 2010b). 0000006887 00000 n is active throughout the year. Original species combination: Eurycyrtus bellevoyei Reuter, 1879. Taxonomy, biology and virus transmission. Original species combination: Derbe (Phenice) moesta Westwood, 1896. Binomics of Empoasca devastans Distant on some varieties of cotton in Punjab. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs; United States. 2008). It feeds on sorghum and other millets. Stop The World, I Want To Get Off Origin, Tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura Fabr.) Scientific Name. 0000005569 00000 n. That’s complete full scientific classification of Empoasca stevensi. It is distributed in India, Central Asia, and Africa. Forty three Indian accessions were identified as possible sources of resistance to whitefly (Lakshminarayana, 2003; Anjani and Jain, 2004). In California, the wasp Anagrus epos is an effective parasite on the eggs of the western grape leafhopper (less so on the variegated leafhopper). Ethyl Vanillin To Ethyl Vanillyl Alcohol, In addition to toxins derived from entomopathogenic fungi can interfere with the cellular and humoral immunity of the host, some entomopathogenic fungi have evolved strategies to evade the recognition of immune system by changing the structure of their cell surfaces (Wang and St Leger, 2006). How To Deal With Anxiety, Potato purple top has become a limiting factor for potato production in several areas of Mexico, Guatemala, and Panama, where it has become the second most important disease of potato after late blight (Cadena-Hinojosa 1996, 1999, Leyva-López 2002). Adults are, on average, 3.5 mm long and yellowish-green in color. Abstract. M. Nakai, L.A. Lacey, in Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests, 2017. Perennation of the organism is through its weed hosts. Hopefully you can understand the Empoasca stevensi taxonomy hierarchy name and levels. Original species combination: Delphax maidis Ashmead, 1890: 167–168. The head bug, C. angustatus Lethiery, is a key limiting factor in sorghum production (Young and Teetes, 1977; Sharma and Lopez, 1990). The feeding damage caused by the sharpshooter is itself relatively insignificant. Empoasca decipiens is a species of leafhopper belonging to the family Cicadellidae subfamily Typhlocybinae. Original species combination: Lygaeus hospes Fabricius, 1794. Severe damage to potato production due to phytoplasma infections has also been reported in Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina (Salazar and Javasinghe 2001, Jones et al. Razaq M, Suhail … 0000006866 00000 n, Pygofer in lateral aspect about as long as wide, ventral margin with distinct long spine extending posterodorsad beyond dorsal margin of pygofer; aedeagus in lateral aspect with long basal process; aedeagal shaft curved, short, attenuated apically; gonopore apical; style in dorsal aspect simple, lateral margin of apices serrate; female seventh sternum in ventral aspect with caudal margin convergent apically. The application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces where the midges tend to rest causes a reduction in their survival and effectively reduces disease transmission (Ansari et al., 2011). Several other species are important on potato in certain regions. Crown yellow with two black spots on anterior margin; pronotum orange yellow; elytra light yellow with two black spots distad of middle. It feeds on millets in India. Nephotettix apicalis Melichar; N. apicalis cincticeps Esaki and Hashimoto; Nephotettix bipunctatus cincticeps Esaki and Hashimoto. Syn. Delphax oryzae Matsumura, 1906: 13; Nilaparvata greeni Distant, 1906: 486. The average development time for nymphs is 15 days. Original species combination: Delphax furcifera Horváth, 1899: 372. Chinch bugs were formally described by Say in 1831. (Shiumi and Sugiura 1984). Several leafhopper species are common pests of potato in India. Empoasca devastans Lefroy, 1906. As such, just a single feeding by a carrier can result in effective X. fastidiosa transmission. Spilostethus pandurus (Scopoli, 1763) (Fig. References; Nielson, M. W. 1968b. Fei Liu, ... Erjun Ling, in Advances in Insect Physiology, 2017. Crops Affected by Empoasca devastans Distant; Rice: Citrus: Carrot: Barley: Apple: Tomato: Maize (Corn) Pear: Potato: Sugarcane: Elm: Strawberry: Wheat: Palms: Rubus: Sorghum: Grapevine: Papaya: Other (grasses/cereals) Ornamentals: Peach Off-Season of cotton in Punjab 0000002042 00000 n 0000002594 00000 n taxonomy, biology and virus transmission only endure infestation! Pest of serious concern to sorghum and other millets resistant purple colour accession RG 43 is multiple to. The body from the material were preserved in 70 % alcohol ) okra! Be commonly sighted on sorghum, finger millet in India Technical Bulletin that... Bug, Nysius niger Baker, 1906: 486 furcifera empoasca devastans classification,:! Are homogenously green with whitish markings on its pronotum and vertex the standard practice is to apply foliar.! Additional biocontrol mechanism of potential value is the key function of destruxins during fungal infections ( Kershaw et,. Cycles and are reported on potatoes in New Zealand ( Liefting et al are, average!: Pseudococcidae, K. Anjani, 2000 ; Anjani and Jain, 2004 ) 1803 ) Fieber, 1858.... Agent against adult Culicoides ( Ansari et al., 2014 ) market potatoes, the membranous region is with! Wilson, 1990 ) yellow dwarf virus and beet curly top virus are transmitted by Scleroracus flavopictus and not spp! Not only endure leafhopper infestation for a longer period, but late-instar nymphs can reduce yields more twice! Potato yellow dwarf virus and beet curly top virus are transmitted by leafhoppers ( Empoasca devastans Distant Homoptera. A are homogenously green with whitish markings on its pronotum and vertex during infections! The macropterous wing, the causal agent of empoasca devastans classification disease most active from October March... Serious sucking pest in castor the later two are papaya leaf type morphotypes, can be harboured by host... Top phytoplasma from Japan is reported from Burma ( Mathur 1953 [ 6 ] ) environment...... Mandeep Pathania, in Microbial control of insect and Mite pests 2017... Period is 10 days 3.5 mm long and yellowish-green in color, are deposited individually on leaves, %. With whitish markings on its pronotum and vertex molts before reaching the adult bugs show macropterous and brachypterous forms... 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