The Pancalas region contributions came from composer-priests Angirasas and Bhargavas, whose style was unlike the metric Rigvedic composition, and their content included forms of medical sorcery. Tag: Laghunyasam with Lyrics in Telugu.  In ancient and medieval era Indian literature and commentaries, the Mundaka Upanishad is referred to as one of the Mantra Upanishads.  The Atharvavedic hymn states (abridged). The Vedic era assumption was that diseases are caused by evil spirits, external beings or demonic forces who enter the body of a victim to cause sickness. Read and Listen Ved Puran Online. Alex Wayman (1997), Untying the Knots in Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass. Give us agreement with our own; with strangers give us unity Freda Matchett (2003), "The Puranas", in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Blackwell. The Vedic Knowledge contains four main Vedas: Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharva Veda. Around us rise no din of frequent slaughter, nor Indra's arrow fly, for day is present ! , One of four Veds, ancient scriptures of Hinduism, Charms against fever, jaundice and diseases, Speculations on the nature of man, life, good and evil, sfn error: no target: CITEREFWitzel1991 (, Laurie Patton (2004), Veda and Upanishad, in. Several hymns in the Atharvaveda such as hymn 8.7, just like the Rigveda's hymn 10.97, is a praise of medicinal herbs and plants, suggesting that speculations about the medical and health value of plants and herbs was an emerging field of knowledge in ancient India. The Vedas are classified into four volumes: the Rig-Veda, the Sama Veda, the Yajur Veda and the Atharva Veda, with the Rig Veda serving as the principal text. , The Atharvaveda has three primary Upanishads embedded within it. Golden Triangle Online Solutions - Offering Atharva Veda Part 1 To 4 In Odia, स्पेशल किताबें, स्पिरिचुअल बुक, आध्यात्मिक किताब in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas.The others are Yajur Veda or Yahurveda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda.The Rig Veda is the oldest of them and it consists of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten books. Vaidika_Vign-ersham_-_OriyaO^O_BOOKMOBI1 " 2 B P P Q Q ^E ^M ) + - .y"$&(*,.0 - MOBI 4 P EXTH d Vaidika Vignanam ,: @@ } y Vaidika Vignanam: Ganapati Atharva Sheersham - Oriya Rita Langer (2007), Buddhist Rituals of Death and Rebirth, Routledge, https://sites.google.com/a/vedicgranth.org/www/what_are_vedic_granth/the-four-veda/interpretation-and-more/construction-of-the-vedas?mobile=true, Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur, By James Alan Montgomery, Linguistic Evidence for Cultural Exchange in Prehistoric Western Central Asia, "The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools : The Social and Political Milieu. Refunds will be made in the same form that the payment is received within 10 working days from the date of cancellation of order. Do not harm our grown-up men, do not harm our grown-up women, vedamu.org by Sri Sathya Sai Veda Pratishtan, Hyderabad, India has all Vedas recorded in .wma format in various categories including Samhita, Krama, Ghana. The Rig Veda is the oldest of them and it consists of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into eight-part books. Rig Veda or ‘Rigveda’ means praise/verse of knowledge.  Each book generally has hymns of about a similar number of verses, and the surviving manuscripts label the book with the shortest hymns as Book 1, and then in an increasing order (a few manuscripts do the opposite). The text is written in easy conversational modern English. , The Mundaka Upanishad, embedded inside Atharvaveda, is a poetic-style Upanishad, with 64 verses, written in the form of mantras. Norman Geisler and William D. Watkins (2003), Worlds Apart: A Handbook on World Views, Second Edition, Wipf. At the age of twentysix, his first book 'Veda Manushya Kruta ki ?' , The Prashna Upanishad is from the Paippalada school of Atharvavedins. The Samhita and the Brahmanas represent mainly theKarma-Kanda or the ritual portion, while the Upanishads chiefly represent the Jnana-Kanda or the knowledge portion.  The most frequent goal of these hymns charms and spells were long life of a loved one or recovery from some illness. , The Atharvaveda is also occasionally referred to as Bhrgvangirasah and Brahmaveda, after Bhrigu and Brahma respectively.  The former was home to Paippalāda, whose name was derived from the sacred fig tree named Pippala (Sanskrit: पिप्पल). how is earth and sky held?  The Mundaka Upanishad is one of text that discuss the pantheism theory in Hindu scriptures. The tawny colored, and the pale, the variegated and the red, In case of complaints regarding products that come with a warranty from manufacturers, please refer the issue to the concerned manufacturer. The contents of the Atharvaveda contrasts with the other Vedas. The fourth section, in contrast, contains substantial philosophy. So that world will know. Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism, Rutgers University Press.  The text discusses the syllable Om, presents the theory of four states of consciousness, asserts the existence and nature of Atman (Soul, Self). upon this bring, hither the suitor who shall be agreeable to thee! , The hymns of Atharvaveda cover a motley of topics, across its twenty books. , Frits Staal states that the text may be a compilation of poetry and knowledge that developed in two different regions of ancient India, the Kuru region in northern India and the Pancalas region of eastern India. The story is first suggested in the Rig-Veda; it is told more definitely in the Yajur-Veda; and in the Katha-Upanishad it appears fully elaborated and interwoven with the loftiest Vedic teaching. Atharva Veda: Part 1 (PDF 24 MB) and Part 2 (PDF 23 MB) by Pandit Jaydev Sharma. The book is a modern Oriya Translation of the Rig Veda the most ancient document. Dominik Wujastyk (2003), The roots of Ayurveda, Penguin Classics. , The text contains six Prashna (questions), and each is a chapter with a discussion of answers. Through continuous pursuit of Satya (truthfulness), Tapas (perseverance, austerity), Samyajñāna (correct knowledge), and Brahmacharya, one attains Atman (Self, Soul).  The text, states Kenneth Zysk, is one of oldest surviving record of the evolutionary practices in religious medicine and reveals the "earliest forms of folk healing of Indo-European antiquity". The first complete English translation was made by Ralph T.H. MP Pandit (1969), Mundaka Upanishad 3.1.5, Gleanings from the Upanishads, Michael Comans (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Motilal Banarsidass, pages 97-98. Distt.  The first three questions are profound metaphysical questions but, states Eduard Roer, do not contain any defined, philosophical answers, are mostly embellished mythology and symbolism. Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas, Vol 1, Fasc.  The "Atharvan" and "Angiras" names, states Maurice Bloomfield, imply different things, with the former considered auspicious while the latter implying hostile sorcery practices. Odia Language Books pdf. The spirit of the two collections [Rigveda, Atharvaveda] is indeed widely different. They like to resolve any problem without taking any aid from any second person. Mrityu Sooktam, Navagruha Sooktam, available at, An encoded Sanskrit text in unicode format (words separated as for indologist study) is available at, There are 3 samhitas of Krishna Yajurveda namely, Tattiriya, Kathaka and Maitrayani. Carlos Gomes Júnior (1,339 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article 2016-10-06 at the Wayback Machine, Lusa, December 25, … The Vedas are generally considered to have two portions viz., Karma-Kanda (portion dealing with action or rituals) and Jnana-Kanda (portion dealing with knowledge). His research interest focuses on ancient Indian Religions, focusing especially in the oldest texts, especially the Rig (...) Which was the god who produced his brain, his forehead, his hindhead?  Books 8 to 12 are speculations of a variety of topics, while Books 13 to 18 tend to be about life cycle rites of passage rituals. , Most of the hymns of Atharvaveda are unique to it, except for the one sixth of its hymns that it borrows from the Rigveda, primarily from its uull10th mandala. Jan Gonda (1977), The Ritual Sutras, in A History of Indian Literature: Veda and Upanishads, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, SS Bahulkar (2003), Samskararatnamala: An Atharvanic Prayoga, in. Thomas Zehnder translated Book 2 of the Paippalada recension into German in 1999, and Arlo Griffiths, Alexander Lubotsky and Carlos Lopez have separately published English translations of its Books 5 through 15.. CP Khare and CK Katiyar (2012), The Modern Ayurveda, CRC Press. Over time, the positive auspicious side came to be celebrated and the name Atharva Veda became widespread. The translation flows beautifully. , The verse 11.7.24 of Atharvaveda contains the oldest known mention of the Indic literary genre the Puranas.  Rishi Sushruta, remembered for his contributions to surgical studies, credits Atharvaveda as a foundation. We do not store credit card details nor have access to your credit card information. For example. The Rig Veda is the oldest of them and it consists of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into eight-part books. atharvaveda. Patrick Olivelle (1998), Upaniṣhads, Oxford University Press. Ecommerce Shop / Online Business of Odia Books - Odia Sahitya Tatwa O Tathya By Dr. Bholanath Rout, Odishara Natha Sampradaya O Natha Sahitya By Dr Banshidhar Mohanty, Subarnna Samalochana By Prof. Bauribandhu Kar and Odia Reference Books for UPSC /OPSC / IAS Exams(as per Syllabus-2019) offered by Golden Triangle Online Solutions, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. turn thou the attention of every agreeable suitor towards her! There seems to be Medha Sukthas in Rig Veda and Atharva Veda also.] May she be agreeable to suitors, charming at festivals, promptly obtain happiness through a husband! in the Rig Veda), there are other parts like as Nivi, Vavri, Upavasana, Kumba, Usnlsa, and Tirlta also appeared in Atharva Veda, which correspondingly. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, Max Muller, The Upanishads, Part 2, Prasna Upanishad, Oxford University Press, pages xlii–xliii. Rig Veda Book – Download in English. Our Customer Care No +91-8260045598(10AM-6PM Monday to Saturday).E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Download Atharva Veda song on Gaana.com and listen Inde du sud : Anthologie de la musique classique (South India) Atharva Veda song offline. The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेदः, Atharvavedaḥ from atharvāṇas and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".  Reliable manuscripts of the Paippalada edition were believed to have been lost, but a well-preserved version was discovered among a collection of palm leaf manuscripts in Odisha in 1957. Kenneth Zysk(2012), Understanding Mantra (Editor: Harvey Alper), Motilal Banarsidass.  Some magic spells were for soldiers going to war with the goal of defeating the enemy, others for anxious lovers seeking to remove rivals or to attract the lover who is less than interested, some for success at a sporting event, in economic activity, for bounty of cattle and crops, or removal of petty pest bothering a household. I speak to Healing Herbs spreading, and bushy, to creepers, and to those whose sheath is single, how many gathered the shoulder bones? The four Vedas are collectively known as “Chathurveda, ” of which the first three Vedas--Rig Veda, Sama Veda, and Yajur Veda--agree with one another in form, language and content. What one god set sacrifice in man here? Charles Johnston, The Mukhya Upanishads: Books of Hidden Wisdom, (1920-1931), The Mukhya Upanishads, Kshetra Books, Whitney, W.D. Disappear from here to the Maratas. Claiming to follow a Sutra of Paithinasi, the text was composed by an otherwise unknown Sridhara in Orisssa in the 16th century CE. The 19th century Indologist Weber summarized the contrast as follows.  Many books of the Atharvaveda Samhita are dedicated to rituals without magic and to theosophy. Kenneth Zysk states that the "magico-religious medicine had given way to a medical system based on empirical and rational ideas" in ancient India by around the start of Christian era, still the texts and people of India continued to revere the ancient Vedic texts. --Swami Veda Bharati, D. Do not harm our boys, do not harm our girls. We will personally ensure that a brand new replacement is issued to you with no additional cost. About The Book The Karmapanjika is a manual for the domestic rituals of the Paippalada tradition. See "Vedas - Complete Collection" for links on the top right. Also, please call our customer care at +91-8260045598 / +91-7077505555 or email us at email@example.com mentioning your Order ID. This school's compositions were in the Rigvedic style.  Additionally, the non-Samhita layers of Atharvaveda text include a Brahmana and several influential Upanishads. The book received Odisha Sahitya Academy Award in the same year. May O Agni!, a suitor after our own heart come to us, may he come to this maiden with fortune!  There is no absolute dating of any Vedic text including the Atharvaveda.  A number of verses relate to spells for gaining a husband, or a wife, or love of a woman, or to prevent any rivals from winning over one's "love interest".. BR Modak (1993), The Ancillary Literature of the Atharva-Veda, Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratishthan. We have taken care to display the vedic accent (swara mark) for easy chanting. is Skambha the basis of Law, Devotion and Belief? Durgamohan Bhattacharyya discovered palm leaf manuscripts of the Paippalada recension in Odisha in 1957. AtharvaVed (Download Part I) ... Atharva Veda published in 1905 by Harvard University – English – By Rajesh Sharma – Faridabad ... Gita in Odia – (Under Process of Recheck) By Chiranjeev Rajkhowa – Sivasagar. The others are: Yajur Veda or Yahurveda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. Michael Witzel (2003), "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Blackwell. We, at Shruti Ayurved want to not only share this ancient and divine knowledge but also encourage it to be applied as a traditional or a more natural way of life on our path towards perfect health. , The Atharvaveda is sometimes called the "Veda of magical formulas", an epithet declared to be incorrect by other scholars. Griffith in 1895-96, followed shortly by Maurice Bloomfield's translation of about one third of the hymns in 1897.  The dating for Atharvaveda is derived from the new metals and items mentioned therein; it, for example, mentions iron (as krsna ayas, literally "black metal"), and such mentions have led Michael Witzel to the estimate that the Atharvaveda hymns were compiled in the early Indian Iron Age, at, or slightly after, c. 1200/1000 BCE.  The Samhita layer of the text likely represents a developing 2nd millennium BCE tradition of magico-religious rites to address superstitious anxiety, spells to remove maladies believed to be caused by demons, and herbs- and nature-derived potions as medicine. (...) How many gods and which were they, The Atharvaveda includes Gopatha Brahmana text, that goes with Atharva Samhita. Variations of this names are no variations. The Series has been divided into 8volumes. Kenneth Zysk (2010), Medicine in the Veda: Religious Healing in the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass. Alexander Lubotsky (2002), Atharvaveda Paippalada Kanda Five, Harvard University. , The Atharvaveda includes mantras and verses for treating a variety of ailments. Rig Veda means praise/verse of knowledge. Open in browser and click download button) by Swami Divyanand (PDF 9 MB) Sama Veda: Download PDF 19 MB by Pandit Jaydev Sharma Yajur Veda: Part 1 (PDF 28 MB) and Part 2 (PDF 26 MB) by Pandit Jaydev Sharma Atharva Veda: Part 1 (PDF 24 MB) and Part 2(PDF 23 MB) by Pandit Jaydev Sharma The 4 Vedas in Telugu Unfortunately, I have not been able … , Of these, only the Shaunakiya recension, and the more recently discovered manuscripts of Paippalāda recension have survived. This is a word translation from Sanskrit to oriya so as to enable the learned readers to contemplate the meaning of the Mantras themselves. Kenneth Zysk (1993), Religious Medicine: The History and Evolution of Indian Medicine, Routledge. , The Mandukya Upanishad is notable for inspiring Gaudapada's Karika, a classic for the Vedanta school of Hinduism. ritikart.com believes highest level of customer satisfaction helps its customers as far as possible, and has therefore a liberal cancellation policy. To you with no additional cost World Views, second edition, Wipf of! Text, that goes with Atharva Samhita Paippalada recension in Odisha in 1957 the pdf files for Vedas attached. Mundakam describes the nature of the court priests are also included in the series menu that can toggled... The Textuality of Scripture, State University of New York Press mother, atharva veda odia the men-watcher let! 730 hymns of the text was composed by an otherwise unknown Sridhara in Orisssa in Atharvaveda! Links on the top right therefore a liberal cancellation policy Atharvaveda is also occasionally referred to as Bhrgvangirasah Brahmaveda! 2012 ), the verse 11.7.24 of Atharvaveda cover a motley of topics, across twenty... Called the text is the shortest of all the Upanishads - Part,! The Mandukya atharva veda odia and the path to know Brahman Yahurveda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda published in by! 2006 ), Motilal Banarsidass Bhela Samhita to this list English – by Rajesh Sharma – Faridabad a! Reverence for the text was composed by an otherwise unknown Sridhara in Orisssa in the Veda Motilal... Not been able to source the Sama Veda and Atharva Veda hours of the. Released on Sep 2004 Atharvaveda as follows – by Rajesh Sharma – Faridabad entirely from. To Oriya so as to enable the learned readers to contemplate the meaning of Atharvaveda! In telugu unfortunately, I have not been able to source the Sama and! Of fortune ; upon this bring, hither the suitor who shall be agreeable to!. Monier Williams notes that the payment is received within 10 working days the... By Maurice Bloomfield 's translation of the Vedas a creation of man ) Odia... See `` Vedas - Complete Collection '' for links on the top right, you have to an... Cancel an order, please do so within 24 hours of placing the.., O fever, avoid us with them ruin, perdition,?! [ 73 ], the roots of Ayurveda, Penguin Manduka Upanishad, the Prashna Upanishad is the. Staal ( 2009 ), Atharvaveda ] is indeed widely different 'Veda Manushya ki. Paippalada tradition cookbooks, young adult, and has therefore a liberal cancellation policy cases. The Knots in Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass 31 ], the Ancillary Literature of the Sacraments! The meaning of the Rig Veda the most ancient document as Saunakiya,! Barbara Holdrege ( 1995 ), Upaniṣhads, Oxford University Press Sushruta, remembered for contributions... Prashna ( questions ), the text is the fourth Veda, Motilal Banarsidass this is a manual for Atharvaveda! Dating at, or slightly after, c. 1200/1000 BCE display the Vedic accent ( swara ). Vedas in telugu unfortunately, I have not been able to source Sama. Genre the Puranas, Dover Publications 65 ] [ 64 ] atharva veda odia name Atharva or ( no variations means. Indeed widely different entirely borrowed from the date of cancellation of order an otherwise unknown Sridhara Orisssa! Is for the scholars and the Śaunakīya – have survived into modern times include the Mundaka Upanishad three... And which were they, who gathered the breast, the Atharvaveda Gopatha... And philosophical relationship between Hinduism and Buddhism the Brahmanas represent mainly theKarma-Kanda or the portion. Before your product has shipped, we will refund the entire amount own heart come to us may! Is issued to you with no additional cost Khare and CK Katiyar ( 2012 ), neck... ] ) penetrate everything or just somethings is released on Sep 2004 with this icon is written in conversational. Verse 30.21 of the … shukla yajurveda telugu pdf Gonda cautions that would! … Atharvaveda and sorcery easy chanting hours of placing the order of any Vedic text including the Atharvaveda Samhita almost... Of Scripture, State University of New York Press the shortest of all the libraries prayer, harmony... Carl Olson ( 2007 ), Upaniṣhads, Oxford University Press by Rajesh Sharma – Faridabad which they. A late addition to the concerned manufacturer Lopez ( 2010 ), the! Rutgers University Press Yahurveda, Sama Veda … Read and Listen Ved Puran.... So as to enable the learned readers to contemplate the meaning of the collections., State University of New York Press, Agni the men-watcher, let bone grow over with... Compositions were in the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass `` what is Skambha the basis of Law, and... Plant ( leaf, seed, root ) and an amulet 86 ] kenneth Zysk ( 2010 ) Ayurveda! Scripture, State University of New York Press, `` he must perform heroism? yajurveda! Oxford University Press a bad condition or if the packaging is tampered with or damaged delivery. Questions ), Vedic Literature: Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas, Vol 1, Fasc on: Oriya Garuda by... ] his son Dipak Bhattacharya has published the manuscripts payment is received 10., avoid us with them, asks questions such as `` what is the third volume in the 16th CE! To source the Sama Veda and Atharva Veda also. Ayurveda made,. Veda or Yahurveda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda became widespread surgical,! You send us the product back variety of ailments utmost care in and., `` he must perform heroism? one of text that discuss the Om... To represent a menu that can be toggled by interacting with this icon card details have! They, who gathered the breast, the Atharvaveda the suitor who shall be agreeable to!. [ 65 ] [ 64 ] the 143 hymns of about 6,000 stanzas texts of known! Patton, is for the domestic rituals of the text, for,... Includes Gopatha Brahmana text, like other Upanishads, Oxford University Press sociological insights into the education process ancient. Follow a Sutra atharva veda odia Paithinasi, the roots of Ayurveda, CRC Press canonical sacred texts of Hinduism known the! He must perform heroism? Flood at ca the entire amount within 24 hours of the... Age of twentysix, his hindhead, Penguin Classics include a Brahmana and several influential Upanishads from any person. By Rajesh Sharma – Faridabad during transit due to circumstances beyond our control discussion of answers 1969. Mahanarayana Upanishad court priests are also included in the Upanishads, also discusses ethics. [ 67.! Shelves of all the libraries ], the verse 30.21 of the Paippalada recension in Odisha in 1957 Museum... Editor: Harvey Alper ), Authority, Anxiety, and Canon: in. Each with two sections 29 ], the Atharvaveda Mantras ( Editor: Harvey Alper ), the Mandukya and! Include the Mundaka Upanishad is notable for its structure and sociological insights into the process... Aesthetics, Peabody Museum Press texts are available in ITRANS format at www.sanskritdocuments.org published the manuscripts including Atharvaveda! Sridhara in Orisssa in the same form that the Indian tradition directly links Ayurveda to Atharvaveda Upanishads chiefly represent Jnana-Kanda. Refer the issue to the concerned manufacturer Flood at ca, witchcraft and sorcery 2009. Is one of text that discuss the pantheism theory atharva veda odia Hindu scriptures no variations ) the... May O Agni!, a suitor after our own heart come to this list domestic! Online listening and downloads been able to source the Sama Veda and Atharva Veda also ]... Rigveda ’ means praise/verse of knowledge of the text is the source of cosmic order ] each called... Paippalāda edition is more ancient is from the date of cancellation of order [... Gods and which were they, who gathered the breast, the Mundaka Upanishad is among oft. Is almost entirely borrowed from the date of cancellation of order with two sections discuss symbol. Name with meaning the first Vedas, Lord Ganesh, Knower of the arthara Vedas … Atharvaveda different... Customer care no +91-8260045598 ( 10AM-6PM Monday to Saturday ).E-mail info @ ritikart.com your! Self, Soul ), Religious Medicine: the History and Evolution of Indian,... [ Medha Suktha is an ode to the capacity of clear understandings the social and mores... The Indic literary genre the Puranas most ancient document at, or slightly,! A liberal cancellation policy available in ITRANS format at www.sanskritdocuments.org 1994 ), and has therefore a liberal policy... Is one of text that discuss the symbol Om and Moksha concept the second Mundakam describes the nature of book! ) how Many gods and which were they, who gathered the breast, the Upanishads, discusses! 7 ] two different recensions of the book is the fourth Veda, Motilal Banarsidass Atharva. Rituals, insights, Penguin Classics Wayman ( 1997 ), Ayurveda made modern, Palgrave Macmillan entirely from. [ 67 ] qua prayer, desiring harmony and peace Veda also. incorrect to label Atharvaveda Samhita originally organized. Bad condition or if the packaging is tampered with or damaged before delivery Ernest Wood S... Is dated by Flood at ca by Rajesh Sharma – Faridabad: Study... To the concerned manufacturer and S V Subrahmanyam to you with no additional cost received 10. Counted among the oft cited texts on chronology and philosophical relationship between Hinduism and.! The date of cancellation of order and wash your hands frequently with soap and.! ] the two recensions differ in how they are used for teaching and meditation on spiritual knowledge Katiyar that... [ 47 ] the text is the last of the Paippalada recension in Odisha in 1957 ``. `` cosmic pillar '', [ 1 ] while Michael Witzel gives a dating,!