The 1990s saw a proliferation of college and university courses in medical writing and in the closely related areas of health education, scientific communication, and technical writing. Included are courses in pharmacology, optics, biochemistry, and systemic disease. The Bureau of Labor Statistics identified more than 10 million health workers in 200 occupations in 1995, and the projected number for 2000 was 12 million in 250 occupations. The fee schedule was implemented in 1992. Discuss the advantages of the national organizations to which professionals belong. Formal opticianry training is offered in community colleges and a few colleges and universities. Social work personnel must be prepared to meet the diverse social services needs of the elderly. Our sources of information for each profession include the following: • Occupational Outlook (2001–2002), published by the U.S. Department of Labor. These may include resistance exercises with weights to strengthen particular body parts, or gymnastic exercises designed to improve balance and coordination. Laboratory procedures require an array of complex precision instruments and a variety of automated and electronic equipment. The nuclear medicine technologist first calculates and prepares the correct dosage and then administers it to the patient by mouth, injection, or other means. Unlike most music programs, music therapy programs focus on the well-being of the client rather than a perfected musical product. 2. Some employers are substituting technologists for operating room nurses to reduce costs. A master’s degree and paid work experience are typically factors given heavy consideration for promotion to senior clinical positions in most facilities. Proficiency in operating basic EEG equipment is becoming little more than the entry-level skill for jobs in this field; additional training is necessary for personnel who perform special EEG procedures. As a result, nursing home administrators are involved in detailed management decisions much more than hospital administrators in all but the smallest hospitals. Work Environment Licensed practical nurses in hospitals and nursing homes generally work 40 hours per week, but often this includes some work at night and on weekends and holidays. School social workers diagnose students’ problems and arrange for them to receive needed services, counsel children in trouble, and help integrate disabled students into the general school population. Dispensing opticians measure clients’ eyes, including the distance between the centers of the pupils and the distance between the eye surface and the lens. Physical therapist programs start with basic science courses such as biology, chemistry, and physics, and then introduce specialized courses such as biomechanics, neuroanatomy, human growth and development, manifestations of disease and trauma, evaluation and assessment techniques, research, and therapeutic procedures. A master’s degree in health services administration, long-term care administration, health sciences, public health, public administration, or business administration is the standard credential for most generalist positions in this field. Social psychologists study the effects of groups and individuals on the thoughts, feelings, attitudes, and behavior of the individual. Employment Opportunities Prospects for employment are expected to grow faster than average through 2008. Such education prepares the graduate to take the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians examination and become certified as an 214 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE EMT-Paramedic. General information on careers in speech-language pathology and audiology is available from: • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 10801 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. The biological photographer typically advances from photographic technician through photographer positions to department or service head. Women have greater dependency on Medicare, resulting from increased longevity, higher rates of poverty, and poor health status. The HMO has been seen as a model for encouraging the regulation of health care costs through competition. A few employers, however, require some training or experience. Some states do additional testing on clinical competency. Biological photographers are employed by many public and private hospitals; universities; medical schools; federal health organizations; research institutions; dental, veterinary, or natural science facilities; and some private medical and pharmaceutical suppliers. Some universities require an undergraduate major in psychology. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $24,820 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $123,770 per year. The school health educator should have an aptitude for scientific and social studies. Hospital pharmacists who have the necessary training and experience may advance to director of pharmacy services or to other administrative positions. Internet: http://www.cswe.org. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,570 and $70,870 per year. Their goal is not only to impart knowledge but also to help patients develop physical capacities and restore a sense of connection with their work and with other people. Describe the differences in licensing, certification, and registra- tion for careers of interest. Health services managers will also be employed by health care management companies that provide management services to hospitals and other organizations, as well as by specific departments such as emergency, information management systems, managed care contract negotiations, and physician recruiting. Volunteer EMTs have varied work schedules, but many put in from 8 to 12 hours per week. Those working for private humane societies and municipal animal shelters often deal with the public, some of whom might react with hostility to any implication that the owners are neglecting or abusing their pets. Computer PAYING FOR HEALTH SERVICES 51 software and records management companies are expanding. America’s Job Bank (AJB), administered by the U.S. Department of Labor, lists as many as 1 million job openings on any given day. All dental schools require applicants to take the Dental Admissions Test (DAT), and when selecting students they consider scores earned on the DAT along with the applicants’ overall grade-point average (GPA), science course GPA, and information gathered through recommendations and interviews. Perhaps the health educator will assist them in organizing a conference, planning a neighborhood cleanup campaign, or developing a television series dramatizing poor health conditions in farm labor camps. Alternately, sanitarians may have four years of specialized experience in inspectional, investigational, technical support, or other work that provided a fundamental understanding of environmental health principles, methods, and techniques equivalent to that which would have been gained through a four-year college curriculum or some combination of education and experience as described above. 108 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE The primary care physician is involved with the care of the total patient and is prepared educationally to handle most types of illnesses. Medical assistants collect and prepare laboratory specimens or perform basic laboratory tests ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGISTS, TECHNICIANS, AND ASSISTANTS 327 on the premises; dispose of contaminated supplies; and sterilize medical instruments. Additional Information For information about practical nursing, contact: • National League for Nursing, 61 Broadway, New York, NY 10006. Industrial Health Care Employment. $48,050–70,870/yr. Because photography occupies an increasingly significant place in scientific and medical research and education, opportunities are expected to be favorable for these specialized skills. Jobs requiring similar analytical, organizational, and communicative skills include physicians, nurses, health educators, and other allied health care professionals, administrators, and programmers and information technology specialists. Average salaries of medical residents ranged from about $34,100 for those in their first year of residency to about $42,100 114 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE for those in their sixth year, according to the most recent statistics from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Inspectors look for inaccurate product labeling, inaccurate scales, and decomposition or chemical/bacteriological contamination that could result in a product becoming harmful to health. Educational and Legal Requirements Nuclear medicine technology programs range in length from one to four years and may lead to a certificate, associate’s degree, or bachelor’s degree. Because of time constraints we updated only the salary ranges. Employment Opportunities Health care continually moves in new and different directions. However, the level of training required for these occupations is substantially less than that needed by veterinarians. A therapist who develops expertise with cardiac patients may transfer to a position as a cardiopulmonary technologist, for example. d. Attached files: The person receiving your e-mail may not have the necessary software to read it. Cardiovascular surgery of the heart and blood vessels is a subspecialty of cardiology. Women and children account for 30 percent of the total Medicaid outlays; the remainder are elderly, chronically ill, or disabled. Still others concentrate on contact lenses or vision therapy. Services provided to the poor and the elderly are inadequate. How-To Hydroponics, the fourth edition, represents the largest and most concise body of work I’ve accomplished on the subject of hydroponics thus far. To obtain a list of state-licensed grooming schools, send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to: • National Dog Groomers Association of America, Box 101, Clark, PA 16113. Always was in top ten of region. Most veterinarians begin as employees or partners in established practices. Therapists provide individuals with adaptive equipment such as wheelchairs, splints, and aids for eating and dressing. $47,090–71,450/yr. Advancement opportunities in this field, as in many other health career areas, depend on the individual system worked out by the employer. Internet: http://www.ada.org. Computers must become a part of daily life and continuing education. In 1983, after years of tinkering with Medicare, Congress passed a prospective payment bill, under which hospitals are paid a set amount for each patient in any of the established 492 known disease categories and diagnosis related groups (DRGs). Registration with this association is needed to work in private practice and to train dance therapy students. Some pharmacists hold more than one job. Obtain all facts pertinent to careers in health services. Individuals who have completed a four-year program in a nonrespiratory field but who have college-level courses in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, biology, microbiology, physics, and mathematics can become a CRT after graduating from an accredited one- or two-year program. Most 442 HEALTH-RELATED PROFESSIONS veterinary medical colleges also require core courses, including some in English or literature, the social sciences, and the humanities. In its use with the mentally ill, music therapy may achieve changes in patients’ behavior that will give them new understanding of themselves and of the world around them. Introduction to Health Policy 2nd Edition PDF Free Download. These reports eventually become a part of the patient’s permanent file. 1999. In this sense, dancing and body movement are therapeutic activities. The growth of health insurance (which is discussed in Chapter 3) and of government’s role in the hospital industry has had a substantial impact on hospitals. As the focus of social welfare policies shifts from benefit-based programs to work-based initiatives, there will be an increased demand for people to teach job skills to people who are new to or reentering the workforce. In addition to working directly with BEHAVIORAL THERAPISTS 347 patients, horticulture therapists often teach at local colleges or universities and conduct workshops and other training programs. Visit the Criminal Profiling, Fourth Edition companion Web site at: http://www.elsev, www.wadsworth.com www.wadsworth.com is the World Wide Web site for Wadsworth Cengage Learning and is your direct source, Perrin-index.indd 162 Educational and legal requirements 5. Most MLS programs require a bachelor’s degree; any liberal arts major is appropriate preparation for such graduate work. Helping individuals with severe disabilities learn to cope with seemingly ordinary tasks such as getting dressed, using a bathroom, or driving a car requires sensitivity as well as skill. • Directed fund drive successfully to acquire monies for a United Way Campaign. ANN EHRLICH CAROL L. SCHROEDER For information on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library’s reference section to find the names of potential sources. 140 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE Information on registered nurses is also available from: • American Nurses Association, 600 Maryland Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20024-2571. Add to Cart. With the application of computer technology to radiology, the field has been revolutionized. They also maintain optical and surgical instruments and assist the ophthalmologist in surgery. Other issues are discussed in later chapters. Write formally, just as you would a written résumé. Internet: http://www.ada.org. Besides working directly with visually handicapped children, resource teachers coordinate their efforts with classroom teachers, school psychologists, and parents to ensure that educational objectives are being met. The educational therapist adapts course content and teaching methods to the patient’s particular handicap and to the particular purpose for which they are intended. Environmental health inspectors may have completed a full four-year course of study that meets all of the requirements for a bachelor’s degree, and that included or was supplemented by at least 30 semester hours in a science or any combination of sciences directly related to environmental health—for example, sanitary science, public health, chemistry, microbiology, or any appropriate agricultural, biological, or physical science. Like teachers, these occupational therapists work regular school hours and participate in teachers’ meetings and other activities. They also advise family care givers, counsel patients, and help plan for their needs after discharge by arranging for at-home services—from meals-on-wheels to oxygen equipment. Speech-language pathologists assess, treat, and help to prevent speech, language, cognitive, communication, voice, swallowing, fluency, and other related disorders. Colleges of pharmacy also instruct students in the use of computers in the pharmacy. Whole Health is VA’s cutting-edge approach to care that supports your health and well-being. At the same time, hospitals in rural communities are likely to continue to have trouble recruiting and retaining qualified radiographers, especially in specialty areas such as radiation therapy and ultrasound. Other self-employed record technicians may specialize in coding, record copy services, or medical transcription—the typing of physicians’ records and notes from dictating or recording equipment or, occasionally, from written notes. They typically consult and counsel clients and arrange for service that can help them. They ensure that all forms are completed and properly identified and signed, and that all necessary information is in the computer. Monoclonal antibodies have an affinity for tumors. Other master’s degree holders may find jobs as psychological assistants in the community mental health field, which often requires direct supervision by a licensed psychologist. • National Academy of Opticianry, 10110 Martin Luther King Jr. Qualified therapists can advance to supervisory positions; promotions are generally based on work experience and completion of advanced education courses. Rehabilitation is a long process, and both the client and family require extra assistance in adjusting to a chronic disability. The Doctor of Optometry degree requires completion of a four-year professional degree program at an accredited optometric school preceded by at least three years of preoptometric study at an accredited college or university (most optometry students hold a bachelor’s degree). The proportion of the elderly population that is female is expected to decline slightly in the future. Next, they monitor the heart’s performance while the patient is walking on a treadmill, gradually ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGISTS, TECHNICIANS, AND ASSISTANTS 311 increasing the treadmill’s speed to observe the effect of the increased exertion. Some dietitians specialize in areas such as renal or pediatric dietetics. More than half of all applicants hold a bachelor’s or master’s degree. 4. As in a library search, look through various lists by field or discipline, or by using keywords. Most require experience with animals, preferably as a volunteer or paid keeper in a zoo. The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA) requires technologists who perform certain highly complex tests to have at least an associate’s degree. The package is then placed in the medicine cabinet of each patient, until the supervising pharmacist checks it. Describe the health care functions of private and public facili- ties, inpatient and outpatient services, military facilities, and volunteer facilities. Many of these courses are required for a master’s degree, and while this level of education is not required for entry into the field, it is an asset in seeking both entry-level positions and promotions. Internet: http://www.aamt. Those in college teaching receive the same range of pay as other teachers. Earnings Because health educators are not licensed, there is no standard earning scale for them. Technologists may obtain voluntary professional certification from the Liaison Council on Certification for the Surgical Technologist by graduating from a formal program and passing a national certification examination. Training programs vary from employer to employer. Today, radiation is used not only to produce images of the interior of the body, but also to treat disease well. Skilled homes are for convalescents and patients with long-term illnesses. A Look Back Since the dawn of recorded history (and undoubtedly before), human beings have suffered sudden and devastating epidemics and diseases. May 19, 2002 Mr. Sheldon Daniels Vice-President, Marketing Great Wood Products 4231 Kimberly Road Twin Falls, ID 83301 Dear Mr. Daniels: Bort Carlson suggested that I contact you concerning a position in your marketing department, in which I could make a significant contribution. Additional Information For information on careers, educational requirements, financial assistance, and licensing in all fields of psychology, contact: • American Psychological Association, Research Office and Education in Psychology and Accreditation Offices, 750 1st St. NE, Washington, DC 20002. Excessive cost is another factor, one that affects the financial structure of the entire health care system. Employment Opportunities The demand for paraoptometrics increases as the need for optometric services increases. However, electrodes for a resting EEG are secured at various places on the scalp, whereas a special procedure EEG may require that electrodes be secured on the chest, arm, leg, or spinal column as well, to record activity from both the central and peripheral nervous systems. At one time, the illustrator’s work was limited to drawings and charts for medical journals, textbooks, monographs, and similar publications. Several national professional associations are also guided by pharmacists with an interest and special talent in organizational work. About 15 percent practice in one of the eight specialty areas recognized by the American Dental Association. Earnings The latest data shows that median hourly earnings of psychiatric aides were $10.66. They are often clerks or cashiers who primarily answer telephones, handle money, stock shelves, and perform other clerical duties. $27,280–29,260/yr. They often offer evening and weekend hours to accommodate their clients. 60 THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES Primary Care Centers Community primary care centers provide a limited range of services and focus on primary care. $53,757/yr. Workers in related occupations include radiologic technologists, ultrasound technologists, cardiology technologists, electrocardiograph technicians, electroneurodiagnostic technologists, clinical laboratory technologists, perfusionists, respiratory therapists, and radiation therapists. Pharmacists in the pharmaceutical industry often have opportunities for advancement in management, sales, research, quality control, advertising, production, packaging, and other areas. In 1988 the Commission replaced the CPR (customary, prevailing, and reasonable) system with a fee schedule. The size of the administrative staff in HMOs varies according to the size and type of HMO. The case for quality. During each therapy session, the therapist assesses the patient to determine the treatment’s effectiveness as well as the progress made toward meeting the treatment’s goals. Federal legislation imposing limits on reimbursement for therapy services may adversely affect the job market for occupational therapists in the near term. However, some facilities and states limit the work that surgical technologists can do, so they will never totally replace operating room nurses. They also talk with the patient’s family, friends, physicians, and teachers to round out this background. Some may rotate among departments. Technologists prepare patients for these procedures by first positioning them on an examining table and then shaving, cleaning, and administering anesthesia to the top of the patient’s leg 310 HEALTH PROFESSIONS INVOLVING PATIENT CARE near the groin. They cooperate closely in this task with the school’s physician and nurse, as well as with the school’s other teachers and service personnel. They wear various hats—personnel director, director of finance, director of facilities, admissions director, for example—analyzing data and then making daily management decisions in all of these areas. Their responsibilities are limited to administrative and clerical duties, and they are not trained to assist physicians with clinical or laboratory tasks. Applicants to occupational therapy assistant programs can improve their chances of admission by taking high school courses in biology and health and by performing volunteer work in nursing homes, occupational or physical therapist’s offices, or elsewhere in the health care field. In addition, they may do more work in the areas of community outreach and preventive care than managers of a group practice do. In P. R. Lee and C. L. Estes, The Nation’s Health, 5th ed. Some corrective therapists are beginning to specialize in therapeutic pools in numerous hospital and health education sites. New England Journal of Medicine, 1966, 334: 794–796. In 1999 a coalition was formed among organizations from all segments of the LTC and political spectrum as well as consumer LONG-TERM CARE 69 groups, with the goal of putting LTC on the national agenda again. aphanet.org. Persons considering this career should have the ability to work with people of all ages, temperaments, and personalities. 506 APPENDIX D Timmreck, Thomas C. Health Services Cyclopedic Dictionary, 3rd ed. This staggering and unbelievable event not only altered our personal lives, but also changed our priorities in ways that we could never have anticipated. Identify the four major types of health services and their functions. Most health professionals enjoy talking to students and answering questions about their particular fields. Currently, the trainers with the best employment potential for these jobs are also able to teach a subject or subjects for which there is a demand. Community health educators often have the task of educating legislators and other policy makers to consider consumer interests in planning and funding health programs. After they complete two years of clini- RESPIRATORY CARE PRACTITIONERS 271 cal experience, they are eligible to take the registry exam to become an RRT. Applicants must have a degree or certificate from an accredited physical PHYSICAL THERAPY 281 therapist educational program prior to taking the licensure examination. Cardiovascular technologists and technicians spend much of their time walking and standing. Most employers now offer managed care options to their employees, and 52 percent of Medicare recipients are in HMOs. Paperback. • Family planning services provide physical examinations, laboratory tests, consultations, education, treatments, and issuance of drugs and contraceptives related to reproduction. Additional Information For career information, enclose a stamped, self-addressed business size envelope with your request to: • American Society of Radiologic Technologists, 15000 Central Ave. These changes, should they occur, will probably be made state by state, through legislation or regulation. Providing respiratory care at home is a rapidly expanding area of practice. The first step in conducting a special procedure EEG is essentially the same as that for a resting EEG—attaching electrodes to the patient’s body. How financial issues affect the quality of nursing homes, where they work with patients tactfully are necessary to the... For benefits and services, acting as a good way to variable and! 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