Omissions? Corrections? Ziyāʾ al-Dīn Baranī, his close companion and counsellor for 17 years, often advised him to abdicate, but Muḥammad disdainfully rejected his advice. They failed because of the harshness of the Sultan in executing them, the challenge they posed to the privileged classes, the general lethargy and conservatism of his subjects, and the expansion of the empire with which Muḥammad’s administrative machinery could not cope. He introduced several reforms in the monetary system, and his coins, in design as well as in workmanship and purity of metal, excelled those of his predecessors.  Ghiyas-ud-Din-Tughluq was succeeded by his son prince Juna khan. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq sultan of Delhi from 1325 AD to 1351. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq died in 1351 AD and after his death Firuz Shah Tughlaq succeeded him and ascended the throne of Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad Tughluq’s attempt to transfer the capital, in between AD 1326 and 1327, from Delhi to Devagiri that was renamed Daulatabad was one among the misunderstood measures. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. From his accession to the throne in 1325 until his death in 1351, Muḥammad contended with 22 rebellions, pursuing his policies consistently and ruthlessly. Three days later Jauna ascended the throne and took the title Muhammad bin Tughlaq. In the year 1321, Ghazi Tughlaq succeeded the throne and was given the title as Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq. Between 1328 and 1329 the Sultan increased the land tax in the Doab—the land between the Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna rivers—but the taxpayers resisted it, especially because a severe drought coincided. The playwright has crafted and well-handled plot with superb-craftsmanship. He became the Sultan in 1325 CE. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most interesting personalities of Medieval Indian history. This project began in 1337-39. Token currency was the system of currency introduced by Muhammad bin Tughlaq where brass and copper coins were to have the same value as silver and gold coins. He was succeeded by Jauna Khan, who took the title of Muhammad bin Tughlaq and became the most able ruler of the Tughluq dynasty. Yet they had always refused any association with government and would not accept any grants or offices except under duress. However, on the way, the Sultan fell ill at Gondal and was obliged to halt for some time. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was interested in Persian poetry, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy and was also noted a philosopher. Hassan took up the title of Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in August, 1347 and founded the Bahmani Kingdom. A2A. A projected Khorāsān expedition (1327–28) that never materialized was intended to secure more defensible frontiers in the west. In 1321–22 his father sent him against the city of Warangal in the Deccan, in which campaign, after initial reverses, he subdued the rebellious Hindu rajas. Legend: al-sultan al-azam muhammad shah firuz shah sultani khulidat mamlakatuhu / Legend: fi zaman al-imam amir al-mu'minin khulidat khilafatuhu, with AH date 793 (= 1390-91 CE) below Reference: Goron-Goenka D583: Muhammad bin Firuz (Muhammad Tughlaq IV) had a brief reign of just over 2 years in the waning days of the Tughluq period. ... Muhammad took a very modern step in introducing bronze coins as the token currency. Sultans, Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Famou… When famine broke out in northern India (1338–40), he moved his residence to Swargdawari to supervise famine relief measures himself. Fakhruddin Muhammad Jauna Khan, the eldest son of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, ascended the throne at Tughluqabad without any opposition. He was perhaps the most striking and enigmatical figure in the history of Mediaeval India. He ruled India for the next twenty six years. Updates? Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Downfall of Tughlaq Dynasty: Towards the end of his reign people started to revolt because of dictatorial policies. He renamed it Daulatabad. Devagiri was the city which Muhammad bin Tughlaq chose to shift his capital to. The Tughlaqs were able to withhold their rule for quite some time as they had strong allies like the Turks, Afghans and the Muslim warriors of south Asia. Muhammad Tughlaq effectively repulsed the Mongol army that had marched up to Meerut near Delhi. He remained at Tughluqabad for forty days and then entered Delhi where he was heartily welcomed. His introduction of token currency, coins of baser metal with the face value of silver coins, however, failed dismally. Mohammad Bin Tughlaq is one of the most interesting sultans of Delhi sultanate during Medieval India who ruled over the northern parts of the Indian …  Muhammad succeeded to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325. All contemporary historians based their assessment of Muḥammad on his administrative measures, which were neither vicious nor visionary. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. Likewise, the ‘Tughlaq’ dynasty began. Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq (1320– 1325), an efficient military commander, was the first ruler of the dynasty. Muḥammad’s last expedition, against the rebel Ṭaghī, ended with his death at Sonda in Sindh in 1351. In the words of a contemporary, “the Sultan was rid of the people and the people of the Sultan.”. International Events; National Events; Financial Events; Science & Technology Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1324-1351) Muhammad Tughlaq was a learned, cultured and talented prince but gained a reputation of being merciless, cruel and unjust. November 16, 2020; Last Update February 28, 2020 6:55 am; Bengaluru; Home; Current Events. According to him, Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq was disgusted with the life of Delhi because he was getting almost daily many anonymous letters from the people of the city abusing and criticizing him and therefore, he wanted to leave it for good. The conquest of Nagarkot in the foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India was based on Muḥammad’s policy of establishing secure frontiers.  He was born in Multan. A coin from the period of Muhammad ibn Tughluq (reigned 1325–51). As his reign began, Muḥammad attempted, without much success, to enlist the services of the ʿulamāʾ, the Muslim divines, and the Sufis, the ascetic mystics. (a) Firoz Shah Tughlaq (b) Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq (c) Allaudin Khilji (d) Sikandar Lodhi Q9. Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq was a Turkic Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. So in order to punish the people he decided to lay Delhi Waste. Khan was Governor of Multan under the Tughlaq ruler, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, and was known to be an able administrator.He did not take up any royal title due to fear of Amir Timur (better known historically as Tamerlane) and contended himself with the titles of Rayat-i-Ala (Sublime Banners) and Masnad-i-Aali or (Most High Post). Muhammad bin Tughlaq was a bunch of paradoxes that proved hazardous for not only his own good as well as for the Delhi Sultanate. Very little is known of his childhood, but he apparently received a good education. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Muhammad-ibn-Tughluq, MapsofIndia.com - Biography of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Sévigné, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, marquise de, ILoveIndia.com - Biography of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq, Indianetzone - Biography of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Muhammad ibn Tughluq - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Muhammad bin Tughlaq had spent a number of years in the south, both as a prince and as a ruler, campaigning, and was familiar with Deogiri which had apleasant climate, being surrounded by hills. His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik) who had the title Sipahsalar. Sairaj, Bhiruram, the stream was the highest one. The spread of the Urdu language in the Deccan may be traced to this extensive influx of Muslims. The Tughlaq Dynasty was at its zenith during Muhammad Tughlaq's reign, which lasted a little over a quarter of a century. First sultan to start irrigation work. Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325-1351) – After the death of Geassudin Tughlaq, Jonah Khan was sitting on the throne of Delhi under the name of Muhammad bin Tughluq. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Khusrau Khan, the last ruler of the Khilji administration was executed by Ghazni Malik, who raised the throne accepting the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq. Jauna Khan on succession of Delhi, took the title of Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Whatever may be the fact Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ordered for the transfer of capital in 1327 A.D. Tughlaq is the emperor. He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq following the latter's death at Thatta in Sindh, where Muhammad bin Tughlaq had gone in pursuit of Taghi the ruler of Gujarat. A born revolutionary, he desired to create a more equitable social order by making Islam a religion of service rather than a means of exploitation. Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr Malik Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr Malik, Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351.. Muḥammad was the son of the sultan Ghiyāth al-Dīn Tughluq. Tughlaq Dynasty was basically of Turkish origin and the family religion was Muslim. The son of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq took the title of Muhammad Tughlaq. He possessed an encyclopaedic knowledge of the Qurʾān, Muslim jurisprudence, astronomy, logic, philosophy, medicine, and rhetoric. The one decision for which Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the 14th century sultan of Delhi, is most remembered, is the disastrous shifting of his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in … Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Muhammad bin Tughluq’s bizarre ‘experiments’ have puzzled all students of history.  Juna khan took up the title of muhammad Tughluq. After his death Ulugh Khan became sultan and assumed the title of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq. For this transfer different reasons have been given by different scholar writers. In the four pages of his so-called autobiography, Muḥammad’s only surviving literary work, he confesses that he had wavered from traditional orthodoxy to philosophic doubts and then found his way to a rational faith. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq Biography. It aimed at establishing military control over the … It issued gold coins – Dinar (200 grains), silver coins – idli (167 grains) and many other coins of other metals. He wanted to have a second capital in the south so that he could control it more easily. As an administrative measure it failed, but it had far-reaching cultural effects. He holds all the power after the death of his father and elder brother by an accident as he claims. Sultan Muḥammad was among the most controversial and enigmatic figures of the 14th century. He ruled from 1324 to 1351 AD. Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq (1320-25): Also called Ghazi Malik. Muḥammad ibn Tughluq, (born c. 1290, Delhi, India—died March 20, 1351, Sonda, Sindh [now in Pakistan]), second sultan of the Tughluq dynasty (reigned 1325–51), who briefly extended the rule of the Delhi sultanate of northern India over most of the subcontinent. Many believe that he was born ahead of his time as most of his ventures were based on innovative ideas but because of the non-cooperation of people they failed to deliver. The transfer of the capital in 1327 to Deogir (now Daulatabad) was intended to consolidate the conquests in southern India by large-scale—in some cases forced—migration of the people of Delhi to Deogir. Muhammad bin Tughluq was the most highly educated of all the preceding sultans of Delhi Being the son of a ‘warden of the marches’, Muhammad bin Tughluq had received excellent military training and he started his career as a soldier. A dauntless soldier, he was tolerant in religion and was normally humane and humble, but these traits were vitiated at times by cruelty sometimes approaching the inhuman. Failing to win the ʿulamāʾ over, he tried to curtail their powers, as some of his predecessors had, by placing them on an equal footing with other citizens. Soon Sultan Mubarak Shah Khalji promoted him to ‘master of th… His character is highly complex and enigmatic throughout the play. (13) Taghi had taken refuge in Sind and Muhammad Tughluq decided to proceed against him. As a result of misguided administrative actions and unexampled severity toward his opponents, he eventually lost his authority in the south; at the end of his reign, the sultanate had begun to decline in power. Qarachil Expedition. The Karajil (Garhwal-Kumaon) expedition (1329–30), an attempt to adjust the boundary dispute with the northern hill states then dominated by China, ended in disaster, but it was followed by an exchange of emissaries between China and Delhi. He passed away in a … However, the empire started to disintegrate henceforth due to a number of reasons. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-51), the eldest son and successor of Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, was one of the most ambitious and powerful Sultans of Tughlaq dynasty. This was the most learned Sultan of the Sultanate period. Muhammad bin Tughluq was born to Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, who was in turn the son of a Turkic slave father and a Hindu Indian concubine mother. Quotes []. But the three unities of time, place and action have been flouted. Three days after the death of his father either in February or March 1325 A.D., prince Jauna Khan alias Ulugh Khan ascended the throne of Delhi and was called Muhammad Bin Tughluq. Although he humiliated them, he could not break their opposition and succeeded only in dispersing them from the towns of northern India. Who among the following sultan founded the city of Jaunpur? When Muhammad bin Tughlaq was crowned emperor, his empire included almost the whole of the northern India, with the exception of Kashmir, Cutch and a part of Kathiawar and Orissa. Endowed with extraordinary intellect and retentive faculty, Muhammad bin Tughlaq assimilated all the branches of learning like philosophy, history, medicine, calligraphy, mathematics, astronomy and all the physical sciences. The ulema were the group of Muslim religious scholars who also advised the king. This has been done in the interest of dramatic effectiveness, and in the finest tradition of Greek tragedies. (c) Tughlaq (d) Sayyid Q8. His father's name was Rajab who had the title Sipahsalar.He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq following the latter's death at Thatta in Sindh, where Muhammad bin Tughlaq had gone in pursuit of Taghi the ruler of Gujarat. The Sultan wanted to use the Sufis’ prestigious position to stabilize his authority as ruler. Writing on this particular initiative taken by the Sultan, Ibn Batuta and Isami said that the citizens of Delhi used to write letters to Sultan which contained abuses and scandals. MUHAMMAD-BIN- TUGHLUQ  Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty. Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlak acquired the throne by murdering his father, became a great scholar and an elegant writer, dabbled in mathematics, physics and Greek philosophy, surpassed his predecessors in bloodshed and brutality, fed the flesh of … Girish Karnad’s Tughlaq deals with the last five years of the reign of Muhammad –Bin-Tughlaq. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. To still his own doubts, as well as to counteract the opposition of the Muslim divines, he obtained from the titular caliph in Cairo a manshūr (patent of royalty) legitimizing his authority. However, many citizens think that Tughlaq killed both of … Author of. First sultan of Delhi who took up the title of Ghazi or Slayer of the infidels. He was deeply read in religion and philosophy and had a critical and open mind. Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1413) In 1,320, Ghazi Malik became the king under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq. This end, he believed, could be achieved only by a strong centralized authority based on justice and patronage of the poor, the learned, and the pious and on the suppression of rebellions mainly of the privileged classes in a tradition-ridden society. He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. He died with a smile on his face and verses of his own composition on his lips. ा का टाइम शेड्यूल जारी, साउथ वेस्टर्न रेलवें(South Western Railway) में अप्रेटिंस के 1004 पदों पर भर्ती. Director, Historical Research Institute; Head, Department of History, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 1960–65. He lived in constant conflict between faith and action, faith in the correctness of his policies and action in the means by which he sought to implement them. Muḥammad tried every measure, conciliatory or coercive, to yoke them to his political wagon. Which sultan took the title of Zil-i-Ilhahi and introduced Sijda and Paibos tradition? Muḥammad was the first ruler to introduce rotation of crops, establish state farms, and tend cultivation and improve artificial irrigation by establishing a department of agriculture. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. See Article History Muḥammad ibn Tughluq, (born c. 1290, Delhi, India—died March 20, 1351, Sonda, Sindh [now in Pakistan]), second sultan of the Tughluq dynasty (reigned 1325–51), who briefly extended the rule of the Delhi sultanate of northern India over most of the subcontinent. He was known for his adventurous projects. There were revolts in many provinces. Zil-I-Ilhahi and introduced Sijda and Paibos tradition empire started to revolt because of dictatorial policies towns of northern.... 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